Chraiet-Rezgani K1, Bouafif-Ben Alaya N2, Habboul Z3, Hajjej Y4, Aoun K5.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2016 Feb 5.


Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains highly endemic in Tunisia. The governorate of Kairouan (Center) is one of the most affected particularly by zoonotic form due to Leishmania major. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic features of the disease in this governorate and to identify any particularities in children. Three hundred and ninety cases were registered over 2 years (2012 and 2013). The average age was 29 years one month [± 22.7] (34.6% of patients were under 15 years). The cumulative incidence of CL was equal to 34.4 per 100,000 per year. It was higher in children (39.6 per 100,000 versus 29, p=0.004). Cases were diagnosed especially in autumn and winter (88.3% of cases between October and January, p<0.001). The average delay of consultation was one month and 22 days [± 2.5] after onset of lesions. The average number of lesions per patient was 2.7 [± 2.3] with a mean diameter equal to 2.2 cm. In addition to a higher incidence of the disease, two other features were found in "Children" group which are the presence of similar cases in the neighborhood (27.7% versus 13.4%, p=0.002) and preferential localization in the face (36.4% versus 11%) while the members were more affected in adults (63.5% versus 46.4%) (p<0.001). Meglumine antimoniate was prescribed for most of our patients (93.1%). The intramuscular route was used more than local one, probably because of high proportions of multiple lesions and facial localization.

KEYWORDS: Child; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Epidemiology; Kairouan; Leishmania major; Maghreb-Northern Africa; Meglumineantimoniate; Tunisia